Securing Europe: France’s Defence Strategy Amidst Rising European Industry Growth and Defence Readiness

In the past years, the Mediterranean Sea has become a theatre of both tragedy and lifesaving efforts, as the ongoing migration crisis has prompted a surge in sea rescue operations. Amidst this complex landscape, the Iuventa case stands out as a pivotal case study, representing the challenges faced by humanitarian NGOs engaged in saving lives at sea. This paper explores the legal framework governing sea rescue operations and analyses the legal intricacies and landmark decision of the Iuventa trial before the Italian Court.

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The Letta Report: Suggestions for European Defence

On 29 April 2024, the Italian Minister of Defence Guido Crosetto and his French counterpart Sébastien Lecornu met at the military camp Raffalli in Calvi, Corsica, to sign a Letter of Intent boosting military cooperation between their respective land forces. The two Ministers signed the Letter as part of their commitment to enhance Europe’s defence posture by integrating industrial bases. This partnership allows French and Italian defence companies to share their financial, personnel and technological expertise and build more competitive industrial centres in the domain of Land Forces. By harmonising their standards, equipment, procedures and training protocols during joint operations and missions, the two countries will enhance the effectiveness of Europe’s ground defence capabilities (Ministère des Armées, 2024).

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Climate Justice and its implications on the EU Defence System: a legal analysis

The effects of climate change have become a solid reality that cannot be ignored for human life on Earth. Europe's shifting climate landscape sees a surge in legal battles, highlighting the deepening understanding of the link between environmental well-being and human rights.  This paper analyses the legal framework of so-called climate litigation, where organisations and interest groups litigate a lack of climate action on the part of governments, and its implications for and application to the Defence and Security sector. Indeed, due to the increasing number of legal challenges against governments and institutions for their inaction on climate change, there has been a growing awareness of their role in protecting citizens from increasingly frequent climate events. This awareness has impacted all areas of public governance, including defence. In fact, even the defence sector, faced with this worrying reality, has had to change itself and its practices to comply with the legal framework, which is composed not only of laws but also of judgments that are increasingly openly determining how the state and institutions have a duty to protect their citizens, through comprehensive action, from the reality of climate change.

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Navigating Complexity: Security Challenges and EU Strategies in the Sahel and West Africa

Since achieving independence in the 1960s, several nations across the Sahel and West Africa have grappled with violent extremism stemming from a blend of ineffective governance, economic instability, and the increasing impacts of climate change. This convergence has triggered a surge in violence, conflict, and criminal activities over the past decade, transcending national boundaries and posing formidable challenges to countries both within and beyond the region. The Sahel region remains a crucial transit corridor for migrants journeying from sub-Saharan Africa to northern coastal countries and onward to Europe, presenting, along with mounting terrorism, a significant security concern for the EU (European Parliament, 2021). Further exacerbation of violence could increase displacement and migration rates from the region, compounding pressures on northern and coastal African nations as well as Europe (Center for Preventive Action, 2024). Against this backdrop, this article delves into the multifaceted dynamics shaping the Sahel and West Africa, and examines the root causes of violence, the rise of non-state actors, and the implications of recent geopolitical shifts. It explores the efforts of the EU and other organizations to address these challenges through strategies such as Security Sector Reform (SSR), development assistance, and regional cooperation. The article highlights the obstacles and complexities inherent in these endeavours, offering insights into the evolving landscape of security and governance in the Sahel and West Africa.

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EU Foreign Affairs Council Approves Ukraine Assistance Fund (UAF): €5 Billion for Military Aid

The European Peace Facility (EPF) has emerged as a critical financial instrument for delivering EU military assistance to Ukraine following the unprovoked Russian aggression against the country (Bilquin, 2023).Conceived as part of the 2016 EU Global Strategy, the EPF was established by the Council on 22 March 2021 through Council Decision CFSP 2021/509. It substitutes and expands upon former financial instruments and it is tailored to provide quick responses to security crises (Council of European Union, 2021), funding both lethal and non-lethal military equipment and supplies (Council of the European Union, 2024).

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