UN MINUSMA Mission: European Withdrawal and the Future of Mali

This Info Flash examines the motives behind the withdrawal of German and French forces from MINUSMA and analyses the reasons behind Mali's strengthened cooperation with Russia. The United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) was established to address the instability caused by jihadist and separatist groups in Mali and tackle long-standing structural issues. The mission's objectives include stabilizing population centers, rebuilding the security sector, implementing disarmament programs, facilitating national dialogue, and ensuring fair elections. Today, Mali is experiencing a deteriorating security scenario with escalating violence, intercommunal clashes, and jihadist attacks. In this context, Mali has turned to Russia for support through the presence of Wagner Group mercenaries, increasing security risks which further influenced the decision to withdraw European contingents. This raises more questions about the country’s future and the MINUSMA mission. Finally, recommendations are provided to enhance the MINUSMA mission's effectiveness and improve Mali's security situation.


Military Courts in the International Scene

This Info Flash reviews the structures of military courts, addressing how they function and the legal statues of these bodies. Additionally, it analyses several examples of relevant case law solved by international courts, namely, the Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, and the International Criminal Court. Finally, the paper is concluded by providing some recommendations regarding how military courts can become more effective.

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Decarbonization in the Defence Sector: Framework and Green Technologies

This Info Flash analyses the environmental concerns that have climbed to the top of the international agenda. The armed forces and the defence sector as a whole are not exempt from this trend. Moreover, the defence sector's environmental footprint is massive, making it necessary for the armed services to devise new policies and activities targeted at minimizing this footprint. These changes represent both a threat to military institutions and an opportunity to implement new technologies that can improve operational and military capabilities (Duncan, 2023). Understanding the effects of climate change, thus, is critical for gaining a knowledge advantage. The military has to understand how climate change and shifting climatic conditions affect strategy and operational conduct. Extreme weather events, for example, may have an impact not only on the operability of military capabilities but also on their efficiency and military installations as a whole. In the future, we are also expected to witness more conflicts caused by climate change, for which security agencies will need to prepare (Wigell & Hakala, 2022).

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Russia Spy Ships Gather Intelligence in the North Sea for Future Sabotages

On 19 April 2023, a joint investigation of Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, and Finnish public broadcasters found that Russia has been using boats disguised as fishing and research ships to perform surveillance and gather intelligence in the North Sea.

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