The Dual-Use Technology Conundrum: The Role of Dual-Use Goods in the Modernisation of the EU Armed Forces and Export Control Initiatives

Following the Juncker’s Commission White Paper Scenario “Who Wants to Do More, Does More”, the Permanent Structured Cooperation’s (PESCO) 25 members are currently developing 47 projects covering the areas of training, land, maritime, air, cyber, and space. Among land initiatives, EUFOR stands out in fostering a coherent full spectrum force package as envisaged by PESCO’s core aim.

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The Contribution of the EU Member States to the CSDP Framework

The current legal framework of the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) was set in stone in 2009 by the Treaty on European Union (TEU). The CSDP is described in detail by the Articles 41 to 46 of the TEU. Article 41, paragraph 2 of the TEU, prohibits expenditure arising from military operations from being charged to the EU budget. Therefore, a large percentage of the military operations costs should be covered by the EU Member States (MS). According to Article 42 of the TEU, the Council of the European Union (EU) and the European Council unanimously decide on matters related to the CSDP.

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Counterterrorism in the EU: The New Agenda 2020-2025 and its Impact on Armed Forces Interoperability

Following the wave of terrorist attacks that shook Europe in 2015, policymakers in the EU realised the necessity to outline a comprehensive strategy to trace the path to fight against political extremism. Whether fuelled by ethnonationalism, religious, or ideological reasons, everyone wants to avoid the hundreds of deaths that plagued that year, and the following ones.

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EUFOR Crisis Response Operation Core: Enhancing Resilience through Interoperability

Following the Juncker’s Commission White Paper Scenario “Who Wants to Do More, Does More”, the Permanent Structured Cooperation’s (PESCO) 25 members are currently developing 47 projects covering the areas of training, land, maritime, air, cyber, and space. Among land initiatives, EUFOR stands out in fostering a coherent full spectrum force package as envisaged by PESCO’s core aim.

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Germany Invests in New Military Space Command

Germany has recently announced the development of a military space command, and they are far from the first country to do so. Indeed, several countries have recently decided to allocate significant resources and funding for the exploration of space. Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer, Germany’s defence minister, gave a statement in response to the creation of the space command, claiming that the underlying causes for its creation were due to “the increasing dependence of the armed forces on space-supported data, services and products and for the overall prosperity of the German people” (Machi, 2021).

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