For centuries the Black Sea has been an important body of water for the region, from access to the Mediterranean Sea to fisheries. Today, for the region’s countries and surrounding areas, the Black Sea represents a major strategic asset. Countries and regions rely on the pipelines and fibre optic cables laid on the seabed. The straits and the right of passage represent a major issue not only for military reasons but also mostly for daily trade amongst nations.
In August 2020, the Belarusian election was widely seen as fraudulent, rigged to ensure that the so-called “last dictator of Europe” remained in power, which led to widespread international condemnation. It also prompted the EU to adopt sanctions against the regime under Article 215 TFEU, aimed at securing the end of autocratic rule and the reorganisation of elections. This led to a heightened antagonism between the EU and Belarus, culminating in last month’s border crisis. Indeed, the Belarusian government relaxed its visa entry requirements in August (Loanes, vox, 2021) in an apparent attempt to incentivise migrants to privilege the Belarusian route into the EU and funnel in a large number of people in the hope of creating political difficulties within the Union, thus weakening it.
In a digital world, the hybrid attack has become a recurrent occurrence. To be prepared to fight cyber threats, the European Union (EU) had first to understand this new form of attack and how dangerous it could be. After the Estonian cyberattack of 2007, the need for a response plan able to satisfy national and European defence expectations brought the debate of cybersecurity to the centre of defence and security policies. The techno- logical advances brought by the internet and electronic devices have become a fundamen- tal part of our daily lives. These technological changes have transformed the way we communicate today and have directly impacted how countries handle defence and security strategies.
Tony Radakin, who served as First Sea Lord of the UK Royal Navy and Naval Service from June 2019 to November 2021, was appointed Chief of the Defence Staff of the British Armed Forces by Prime Minister Boris Johnson on 30 November 2021.
Over the last twenty years, the importance of the latest weapons in modern warfare has been called into question. Indeed, it has been largely debated that victory in future high-intensity conflicts may no longer be contingent on who possesses the best warships, planes, and tanks (i.e., the best equipment) but rather on who can better handle information to act faster and more effectively than their adversary (Work & Fabian, Breaking Defense, 2021). Future wars are expected to be short, precise, and decisive. This new kind of warfare may require decisions to be made within hours, minutes or potentially seconds, compared with the current multi-day process to analyse the operating environment and issue commands. That is the reason why last May, Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin approved the strategy document for the Defense Department’s Joint All-Domain Command and Control, paving the way to implement technology that shares data between the services to improve the quality and speed of tactical decision-making (Jasper, NextGov, 2021).