The first measures to counter terrorism were adopted in the 1960s and 1970s to deal with the first attacks that Europe suffered during that period, which led the first nine countries of the former European Economic Community (ECC) to become aware of their individual vulnerability to the new risks. However, it was the terrorist attacks of the 11th of September 2001 which triggered a collective reaction that led to the approval in a few days of the measures that had been blocked for years. This incident promoted the creation of a new legal framework to strengthen international cooperation in criminal matters within the European Union (EU). As a consequence, on the 13th of June 2002, the Council of the European Union adopted the decision on the European Arrest Warrants (EAW) and the surrender procedures between Member States which entered into force in 2004.
On the 20th of November 2020, the European Council approved the first PESCO Strategic Review (PSR), an assessment of the first initial phase (2018-2020) of the Permanent Structured Cooperation, and guideline for its second initial phase starting in 2021 and lasting until 2025. The PSR started in December 2019 and continued throughout 2020 at the level of the PESCO Secretariat.
Since at least 1996, the Ukrainian military has been engaged in gradual shifts away from external influences in technological innovation. The military structure in Ukraine has grown more and more independent from external actors, particularly regarding soft power deals with Russia and the relation between the two powers.
Keeping up with rapidly advancing technological progress is critical to a nation’s military effectiveness. Nowadays, massive research into new military technologies can provide states with qualitatively superior armed capabilities to better address even non-conventional and asymmetrical threats. For this reason, the military sector has been one of the first to implement virtual reality (VR) for the purpose of training land, maritime and air forces.
The amount of digital information is growing daily and is becoming increasingly vulnerable and difficult to manage. Consequently, new security challenges are arising and with the new types of crimes, which States are not always prepared to tackle. New technologies have also created new tools that facilitate attacks and allow criminals to rapidly adapt to change. Such crimes and criminals are to be considered cyber dependent since they would not exist in the absence of data and internet networks.