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International Criminal Court building (2016) in The Hague, Oseveno, August 27, 2016 (Source:

Modern Warfare Under the Laws of War

Written by Christian Di Menna, Candela Fernández Gil-Delgado, Leandro Mendes Pereira and Aris VasilliouFrom the dawn of civilisation to today, war- fare has brought great destruction and terrible human suffering,…


Progress in PESCO’s Military Mobility Project: US, Canada, and Norway Invited to Participate

On 11 December 2017, the Council of the EU adopted the decision to establish the Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO Secretariat, 2021). PESCO aims to enhance defence cooperation and army interoperability between EU member states who are willing and able to participate (ibid). Concretely, it provides a framework to increase cooperation in the planning, development, investment, and operability of defence capabilities between the 25 participating EU member states (ibid; EDA, 2021). This way, PESCO is a collaborative effort to create “a coherent full spectrum of defence capabilities available to Member States for national and multinational (EU, NATO, UN, etc.) missions and operations” (PESCO Secretariat, 2021). It is a strong form of cooperation as participation in PESCO entails automatic subscription to the list of legally binding commitments enshrined in article 2 of Protocol 10 annexed to the Treaty on the European Union (TEU) (ibid).


Assessing Operational Issues Within the Transatlantic Defence Environment: Western Confrontation with Russia in the Baltic Through the Lens of Military Mobility to Secure the Suwalki Gap

Strategic analysis and the concept of security have undergone a major evolution since the end of the Cold War. Nowadays, threats are no longer exclusively location-based, but have become more horizontal and less defined. Their orientation assumes a hybrid shape, and they are becoming more difficult to frame, assess, and face. It is in this security context that NATO and the EU operate, a multipolar international system with players making use of unconventional warfare techniques, from the use of deniable proxies to new forms of pressure (e.g., energy supplies, foreign media control and propaganda, mobilisation of ethnic minorities abroad, cyber-attacks) to achieve their foreign policy goals.