Finland’s official entry into NATO on 4 April 2023 marked the culmination of a meticulously orchestrated 11-month accession process, catalysed by the destabilising events surrounding the Russian invasion of Ukraine. While Finland’s accession to NATO may appear straightforward, it was expedited in light of the urgent security imperatives prompted by the invasion. Nevertheless, the transition to NATO membership calls for careful consideration of the multifaceted security dynamics between Finland and the alliance. In this context, this paper endeavours to cast a forward-looking perspective, examining the future trajectory of NATO-Finnish cooperation post-accession. Concretely, it will look at what the next steps are that NATO and Finland could and/or should take after the latter’s accession to the former. Central to this exploration is an assessment of the potential avenues for Finland to further integrate into NATO’s operational framework. Specifically, a detailed analysis will be undertaken to evaluate the feasibility and implications of expanding NATO’s presence within Finnish territory through initiatives such as the enhanced forward presence (eFP). Then, the paper will explore the prospects for enhanced collaboration within the Northern Group, leveraging Finland’s NATO membership to deepen regional defence cooperation. Furthermore, consideration will be given to the merits of Finland joining the Bucharest Nine (B9) group, elucidating the potential benefits and strategic imperatives associated with such a move.
NATO, when required, carries out disaster relief operations and missions in response to natural or humanitarian disasters. In response to the devastating earthquakes in Turkey in February 2023, NATO established temporary shelters for thousands of people and coordinated an airbridge to deliver vital supplies from allies and partners. The mission, complying with the general principles of International Humanitarian Law, acted in a very unstable political environment, considering the strategic position of Turkey as a powerful state in the Mediterranean Sea and a member of the Alliance. This paper analyses the legal framework in which the mission has been acting, and its conformity to it,as well as its political implications in the light of the complex diplomatic relations between Turkey, United States, and NATO.
Over the past decades, Europe has enjoyed an extraordinary period of peace, but this has not been achieved without any cost. Indeed, the membership of European states within the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization has played a key role, primarily through their commitment to mutual defence, contained in Art. 42 (7) of the Treaty of the European Union and Art. 5 NATO Charter. By establishing such clauses, the signatory parties commit to support each other in case of attack against any of them. Despite their importance in ensuring the security of all allies, scenarios such as the 9/11 terrorist attack on the US or the 2016 terrorist attacks in Paris showed their limitations when the affected states invoked these clauses.
Climate change is widely acknowledged as one of the most pressing issues today. As time passes, the environmental repercussions and global impact of greenhouse gas emissions grow increasingly apparent, leaving no alternative but to act. All industrial and commercial sectors must work together to drastically minimise their effect on our planet and avoid a global disaster. This encompasses the long-ignored global military industry, including its supply chain, which uses enormous amounts of fossil fuels and accounts for a significant portion of government spending.
In mid-2023, Denmark, the Netherlands and Norway pledged to train Ukrainian pilots and donate several F-16s to help Ukraine defend itself against the ongoing Russian invasion (Breaking Defence, 2023; Dubois, 2023). More recently, the US Congress approved the transfer of 24 Royal Danish Air Force F-16s to Argentina after White House pressure, in a deal reportedly worth $338 million (Segovia, 2023). However, while this development contradicts the recent Western pledge to support Ukraine, by apparently deviating to another country the Danish planes publicly earmarked for Kyiv, it will be argued that they do not conflict because of equal geopolitical priorities and, thus, can mutually complement.