At the Helsinki European Council on 10 and 11 December 1999, EU heads of state and government laid the foundations for various permanent political and military bodies: the Political and Security Committee (PSC), the EU Military Committee and Committee for Civilian Crisis Management. In the short and medium term, these actors would enable the EU to enforce its responsibilities in conflict prevention and crisis management. The Council of Ministers of the then-existing Western European Union outlined such responsibilities in the June 1992 Petersberg Declaration. It included humanitarian and rescue tasks, peace-keeping tasks and tasks of combat forces in crisis management.
On June 16th 2023, NATO and the EU released their 8th progress report on the implementation of the common set of proposals endorsed by the respective Councils on December 6th 2016 and December 5th 2017. This info flash aims at identifying elements of change and continuity in bilateral cooperation dynamics compared to the 7th progress report published on June 20th 2022.On June 16th 2023, NATO and the EU released their 8th progress report on the implementation of the common set of proposals endorsed by the respective Councils on December 6th 2016 and December 5th 2017. This info flash aims at identifying elements of change and continuity in bilateral cooperation dynamics compared to the 7th progress report published on June 20th 2022.
The Russo-Ukrainian conflict has unleashed the destructive potential of modern warfare within Europe, hindering Kyiv’s sovereignty and territorial integrity while causing a massive migration wave which tested the EU’s solidarity and resilience. The EU has provided Ukraine with financial and military aid while unfolding an unprecedented response under the CFSP framework through eleven packages of sanctions against Russia
A diplomatic conference leading to the Convention on Cluster Munitions (CoCM) was held on 30 May 2008 with the aim of banning the use of cluster munitions for all countries that ratified the Convention. Currently, 111 states are parties to the Convention and 12 are signatories. Despite the high number of participants in the treaty, success remains relative as some key major powers including the United States and Russia are missing. Furthermore, there is an important nuance reflected in the treaty concluded in Article 21, which explains that parties to the treaty are allowed to cooperate militarily with states that do use these weapons that are prohibited by the Convention (Convention on Cluster Munitions, 2008). Why is there controversy regarding the use of cluster munition and what are the consequences of Article 21 CoCM?
The UK and Poland have what is currently being described as one of the closest partnerships within NATO (GOV.UK, 2022; Martin, 2023). This research paper will examine how this relationship has developed, with a special interest in the signing of the 2017 Treaty on Defence and Security Cooperation. The 2017 Treaty encouraged cooperation between the UK and Poland in a range of areas, including multiple agreements on exchanging military equipment and training of troops. These agreements became even more relevant, and arguably essential in the context of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in 2022.