Attrition in Ukraine: Where Kyiv Stands After One Year

This Info Flash presents how the Russo-Ukrainian War has devolved into a war of attrition. With material in short supply, Ukraine depends heavily on foreign contributions to maintain the war effort. Furthermore, loss in revenue from decreased production, exports, and taxes leads to massive deficits for the national government. Post-war reconstruction is also expected to be expensive, requiring significant external assistance. As a result, while continuous military and economic support from NATO, the EU, and others is essential to Ukraine, it will be important for countries to increase the necessary defence production to maintain their stockpiles and to plan for continued financial assistance for the duration of the war and following its conclusion.

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Small but Ready: How Finland Has Prepared to Defend Itself

The Nordic nation of Finland is expected to join NATO in the coming months. Despite its size, it will be an asset, not a liability. Finland faces many national security concerns, primarily originating from Russia. However, Finland has gradually developed an impressive military well-equipped to defend the country. Significant procurements in the air force, army, and navy will reinforce Helsinki's vital role in the Baltic and even Arctic theatres. Furthermore, the Finnish comprehensive security model connects state and non-state entities in the interest of national security, leading to greater resilience and preparedness in Finnish society. This model results in a unique hybrid resilience, which is critical considering Russia's propensity for hybrid warfare.

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European Defence Fund: Time to Shine

In the wake of the European Council's discussion on the 26th of February regarding the future of EU security and defence, a decisive juncture to assess the stature of EU defence cooperation lies ahead. The EU pledges to deliver a collective answer to a fast-changing strategic environment and maintain momentum on its defence initiatives. Among its initiatives, the European Defence Fund (EDF) aims to boost joint research and innovation in defence and stimulate Member States industrial bases to develop common military capabilities. The EDF has officially come into effect with the new Multi-Annual Financial Framework (MFF) 2021-2027, empowered with a total budget of € 8 billion; thus, it is time to demonstrate its potential.

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