In the context of the EU and NATO’s eastern enlargement, the need to enhance military cooperation in a post-conflict society like the Balkans has been introduced as a fundamental perspective to ensure peacebuilding and restore security in the region. Despite working towards full NATO and EU memberships in recent years, the defence environment and national shrinking budgets have delayed the Balkans’ objective of fulfilling the requirements needed to achieve a collective defence and military cooperation between armed forces.
The tank’s earliest predecessors can be traced back to horse-drawn war chariots of the 2nd millennium BCE in the Middle East and, later, to the protected vehicles of the Middle Ages in Europe. Both ideas fused in the 14th and 15th centuries when Guido da Vigevano and Leonardo da Vinci developed battle cars. However, more practical forms emerged in early 20th century England with the first self-propelled armoured vehicle— an armoured steam traction engine— and the first motor vehicle mounted with a machine gun. The operational push to develop such vehicles arose from the vulnerability of horse-drawn carriages in the infantry, which were needed to improve the mobility of the heavy machine guns that dominated battlefields.
The security of the cybersphere, both on a national and international level, has always been threatened by the actions and crimes committed by malicious cyber operators. The sophistication and the potential pervasiveness of their cyber threats have attracted the attention of various States and international organisations, including the European Union (EU) and NATO, prompting further cooperation and the provision of effective legal instruments for the protection of cyberspace and its users.
The history of the augmented soldier dates back to antiquity and the founding of the con- ventional military structure of people groups. These examples persist throughout histori- cal development and contribute towards the comprehension and intersplicing of military doctrine with the training of the rank-and-file soldier. These examples, when analysed, aid in developing a comprehensive overview of the evolutionary integration and development of the contemporary conventional land forces soldier. From ancient Sparta to Rome, aug- mentation of combat-ready troops has been progressively developed, along with equip- ment and biological aids used to further this military mandate aim.
For decades, the European security policy has been an open question, as its highly political relevance never conceded a fully supranational approach that would enable comprehensive interoperability. All security aspects are grounded in an intergovernmental logic dating back to the conception of the ‘second pillar’ established in Maastricht in 1992. The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) remains ‘common’ only in some aspects, leaving wide discretion to a single MS. The same was likely to be the case for the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). Being specifically designed as the military component of the CFSP, the CSDP was decisive in offering Europe the opportunity of independently taking charge of its security issues on the military level by enhancing interoperable mechanisms among national forces.