The security of outer space has proven to be quite a complex and rapidly evolving policy field, requiring a similarly prompt response from nations around the globe. In the European Union, the problem is compounded by the vertical separation of power between the EU and its Member States, including the principle of conferral, which hinders the creation of a unified policy.
Although the EU is an organisation that has been active for well over half a century, its approach to the international scene has undergone several changes. Many times, the EU has alternated between moments of strong presence on the international scene and mo- ments in which its presence was decidedly more marginal, often determined by the individualism of its MS or by the opposition of other international actors. This has led to a discrepancy in the academic perception of the EU. Some scholars recognise a decisive European influence on all current international developments. Other academics believe that the power of the EU is merely superficial and that the EU does not affect the national and international superpowers in an incisive way.
For centuries the Black Sea has been an important body of water for the region, from access to the Mediterranean Sea to fisheries. Today, for the region’s countries and surrounding areas, the Black Sea represents a major strategic asset. Countries and regions rely on the pipelines and fibre optic cables laid on the seabed. The straits and the right of passage represent a major issue not only for military reasons but also mostly for daily trade amongst nations.
In a digital world, the hybrid attack has become a recurrent occurrence. To be prepared to fight cyber threats, the European Union (EU) had first to understand this new form of attack and how dangerous it could be. After the Estonian cyberattack of 2007, the need for a response plan able to satisfy national and European defence expectations brought the debate of cybersecurity to the centre of defence and security policies. The techno- logical advances brought by the internet and electronic devices have become a fundamen- tal part of our daily lives. These technological changes have transformed the way we communicate today and have directly impacted how countries handle defence and security strategies.
Additive Manufacturing offers a wide array of solutions for the military, previously impossible with conventional manufacturing techniques. The flexibility provided by the technology can be game-changing through multi-domain integration (land, air, marine, space, and cyberspace). So, what is additive manufacturing?