In the last decades, drones have become quite famous: they can be seen doing a wide variety of actions, from taking spectacular aerial photographs and high-definition videos to counter-terrorism missions. Drones’ low procurement cost, according to the United Nations (UN), is facilitating their quick proliferation. Their compact size and precise skills make them more likely to be weaponised and deployed surreptitiously by state and non-state actors in violation of transparency and accountability rules.
Servicemen and women in land forces around the world often confront a number of duty-related mental, emotional, and physical hardships. War can inflict many different manifestations of ethical and psychological distress, which fall under the umbrella of ‘moral injury’. Moral Injuries (MI) were first discussed in relation to military personnel transgressing moral beliefs and values during war, but it has since expanded to include equivalent emotional experience by healthcare professionals, first responders, rescue workers, and everyone facing similar complex emotions as a result of actions taken or observations made throughout traumatic circumstances. While moral injury and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been seen to share several symptoms, military, soldiers, clinical psychologists, as well as chaplains are concerned about PTSD’s incapability to account for the substance of moral and ethical distress that battlefields may generate. Modern warfare produces new challenges to the personnel. With the advent of new technologies and the use of drones, the author of a particular action does not directly see the consequences of what he/she has done. This may cause different types of moral injuries since the handler will take longer before realising the magnitude of his gesture.
The term ‘non-strategic nuclear weapon’ (NSNW) includes nuclear warheads for all delivery systems such as gravity bombs for aircraft other than nuclear-capable heavy bombers, nuclear warheads for naval cruise missiles and torpedoes, and nuclear warheads for anti-ballistic missile (ABM) and air defence systems. The NSNWs term would also capture any nuclear warheads for surface-to-surface missiles with less-than-50 kilometres ranges, and nuclear artillery shells.
It has been over three decades since communism was abolished in the Baltic area and Eastern Europe. In the years after, the Baltic and Eastern European countries have charted a new, faster path to integration with the West. All three Baltic republics and Poland joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) within 15 years after regaining independence.
The security of outer space has proven to be quite a complex and rapidly evolving policy field, requiring a similarly prompt response from nations around the globe. In the European Union, the problem is compounded by the vertical separation of power between the EU and its Member States, including the principle of conferral, which hinders the creation of a unified policy.