The Impact of Weather Conditions on Amphibious Military Operations

This paper will analyse how weather conditions impact amphibious planning and the conduct of military operations. More precisely, this paper will scrutinize the different components of the broader concept of weather, assessing the impact that these components can have on amphibious warfare. To write this Info Flash, mainly sources coming from the US Marine Corps were taken into consideration, since they regularly publish analyses and studies. However, analysing the American doctrine regarding amphibious operations makes it possible to make similar considerations for the NATO doctrine, since the Alliance’s doctrines are considerably influenced by the US despite not being public knowledge.

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From the “Alligator” to the LCAC: How Amphibious Military Vehicles Evolved in Time

In recent times, amphibious warfare returned to prominence, with many military operations around the world being conducted by amphibious troops. From D-Day to Ukraine, marines from different countries have a long history of successful deployment in war theatres, mainly due to their preparation and their capabilities. Readiness, flexibility, and cross-domain operativity are the basic features of amphibious units, which find themselves fighting in one of the most difficult types of warfare. Sea, land, air, space, and cyberspace are all fundamental domains to organising and carrying out a successful amphibious operation. For this reason, to operate in such a complex and multifaceted environment, amphibious units benefit from unique vehicles and assets that help them in their operations.

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International Humanitarian Law in Urban Warfare

Urban environments have increasingly been at the forefront of a number of armed conflicts. This should come as no surprise, since an urban setting has the capability of producing a number of advantages for the defending side by negating any numerical or mechanical advantage the opposing force may have. In addition, cities make it easier for combatants to hide and blend in with the civilian population and conduct irregular military activities. While this might constitute an advantage for the conduct of military operations, it means that civilians could become entrenched in a combat situation. Therefore, it is of paramount importance that all sides of a conflict maintain the utmost regard for international humanitarian law. In line with the current conflict in Ukraine, this contribution will focus on the scope of international humanitarian law in an international armed conflict, between two or more internationally recognised States. As such, this InfoFlash aims to provide a general overview of three of the main principles which are of special interest in an urban environment: the principles of distinction, proportionality, and precaution.

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Legal Uncertainty Around the use of Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems in International Armed Conflicts

Autonomous weapons systems incarnate one of the most debated evolution in warfare. War is based upon a simple negative definition of a lawful targets and the conduct of hostilities. Hence, only an authorised party can legally kill another according to the jus in bello. However, with the development of new technologies, legal questions arose around the use of lethal autonomous weapons systems in international or non-international conflicts.

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New Means of Warfare against Orbital Targets, a thin line between Compliance and Violation of the International Conflict Law

In the context of the new attention given by the states to the three strategic "oceans", the air and space domain embodies duality. On the air side, the rule of law is already quite clear. The real issue revolves around the space side of the subject. Given the growing need for space facilities to ensure a coherent military strategy, force projection, surveillance, intelligence, etc. It is necessary to address the legality of conducting an attack in orbital space against such installations.

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