Since the Russian invasion of Crimea, Western military analysts had difficulty defining Russia’s art of war. The scholarly descriptions ranged from ‘fourth-generation warfare’ to ‘non-linear warfare’ and ‘hybrid warfare’ (Czekaj & Howeverd, 2019, p. 179). However, prominent Russian scholars, such as Slipchenko, Major General Vladimirov and General Gareev offered an alternative concept to distance themselves from the Western rational framework.
On 18 September 2023, Lieutenant General Süssli announced that Switzerland will halt the selling of bunkers and reintegrate them within the national defence strategy. This decision marks a significant change to Switzerland’s previous policy (Allen, 2023, para. 2). In 2010, the Swiss Defence Minister Maurer stated: “The nature of military threats has changed. The bunkers are poorly placed and the weapons they contain will only last for another ten or twenty years. It's not worth maintaining something that you're not going to use in the future” (Allen, 2023, para. 4).
On 3 September 2023, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy announced the replacement of the country’s defence minister. The cabinet reshuffle was made despite the apparent progress of Kyiv’s counteroffensive, which has seen its forces advancing into Russian-occupied areas. Oleksiy Reznikov’s dismissal as defence chief represents the most significant alteration within this government since Russia launched its full-scale invasion last year.
On 9-10 September, world leaders gathered at the 18th G20 Summit to discuss the prevalent issues facing the world in New Delhi, India. This year’s edition theme: ‘Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’ or ‘one earth, one family, one future’. Issues of global economic growth along with climate concerns, digitalisation, and gender equality were on the agenda (European Council, Council of the European Union, 2023). However, one topic overshadowed all others: Russia’s war against Ukraine (Bose et al., 2023).
The Russo-Ukrainian conflict has unleashed the destructive potential of modern warfare within Europe, hindering Kyiv’s sovereignty and territorial integrity while causing a massive migration wave which tested the EU’s solidarity and resilience. The EU has provided Ukraine with financial and military aid while unfolding an unprecedented response under the CFSP framework through eleven packages of sanctions against Russia