Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Warfare

The field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) is evolving quickly. New artificially intelligent technologies are being developed continuously, and sometimes they can be ground-breaking. These technologies are increasingly incorporated into diverse aspects of everyday life and are becoming crucial for commercial, economic and scientific development and innovation. It is not surprising that the defence sector is also seeking to take advantage of AI and introduce these new technologies into the security arena. As explained by Murugesan (2022, p. 4), AI can be used, among other things, “for repetitive tasks to free up security staff for projects that require human ingenuity.” Furthermore, testifying to the benefits of AI, “NATO Member States have already started to invest in this technology and have incorporated it in their defence strategy” (Carlo, 2021, p. 269). Despite its benefits, AI is expected to bring “dramatic changes in the strategy, operational art, tactics and doctrines of the warring sides” (Ploumis, 2022, p. 1). On this line, changes need to be carefully considered and studied to prevent the risks they could engender. For example, AI technologies “have a substantial impact on cyber warfare, but could have an adverse effect and significantly increase the number and threat level of cyber-attacks in the future” (Kline et al., 2019). AI systems are thus expected to impact “the conduct of warfare, bring new capabilities into being, and alter power equations” (Singh Gill, 2019, p. 169). Drawing from these assumptions, this paper aims to study how AI can impact the nature of conflicts. In particular, the paper seeks to better understand the benefits and risks associated with the introduction of AI technologies in the security sector for military joint operations, considering technological compatibility and ethical considerations. How do developments of Artificial Intelligence Systems in the defence sector affect military cooperation? What are the benefits and risks associated with the inclusion of Artificial Intelligence in the defence sector?

0 Comments

Convergence and Divergences: Unravelling the Challenges and Opportunities of the Future Combat Aircraft of Europe, a key element for European Interoperability

The Russian war in Ukraine has reiterated the significance of air superiority in achieving war objectives. “The war in Ukraine shows what fighting without air superiority looks like – massed armies relying on ground-based artillery firepower for their lethality, with hundreds of thousands of dead in the first year”. So, preventing long and deadly campaigns for Land Forces is critical for Europe, which strong air capabilities can accomplish. The Western world and Russia have been on the vanguard of air combat technology for decades. Since the end of the Cold War, many further countries have embarked on developing their aircraft capabilities, with China putting together one of the most severe efforts to counter Western technologies. Nowadays, building advanced aircrafts requires heavy investment in technological warfare. It is also a simultaneous sign of geopolitical strength. Thus, the possession of self-made aircrafts is proof of having not only the industrial and financial capability to reach higher levels of defence autonomy, but also the will and determination to achieve such goals. In that regard, it is worth to analyse whether Europe has the capability and determination to achieve such a milestone in defensive capabilities as having a standard combat air system.

Comments Off on Convergence and Divergences: Unravelling the Challenges and Opportunities of the Future Combat Aircraft of Europe, a key element for European Interoperability

An Opportunity for Europe to Expand Joint Defence Funding

The European Defence Fund (EDF) was launched in 2017 as an aspect of the European Union’s Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) to increase coordination and investment in defence research and development (R&D) and improve interoperability between European national armed forces. Domestic demand for defence technologies in Europe has fallen sharply in recent decades, which has led to smaller investments in R&D, increased dependence on civilian sectors, and stagnation of military-industrial skills. Small and medium-sized enterprises, especially those from smaller European states, struggle to compete with larger corporations from bigger economies. Furthermore, European military spending has become mired with inefficiencies and duplications. After an initial pilot period, the EDF has been allotted €8 billion for R&D. And while this is a start, the EDF requires a serious expansion for the current and future European capability needs. There are significant hurdles that Europe faces, some of which remain outside the scope of the EDF, such as the lack of an open European defence equipment market. These issues cannot be ignored when conventional warfare has returned to Europe.

Comments Off on An Opportunity for Europe to Expand Joint Defence Funding

PESCO launches new projects as Denmark joins the effort to improve European military interoperability

At the end of May, the Council of the European Union adopted 11 new projects and welcomed Denmark as a new member state of the Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) initiative (European Council, 2023). These events are milestones for two reasons; first, these new operations have a focus on interoperability; and second, Denmark’s accession itself, as in the past the country was reluctant to join PESCO and European defence efforts. The 11 new projects focus on a range of military domains. These include training, land, maritime, air systems and cyber. More specifically, the projects concerning land interoperability will primarily focus on unmanned ground systems, communication and infrastructure networks (PESCO, 2023).

Comments Off on PESCO launches new projects as Denmark joins the effort to improve European military interoperability

The Role of Conventional Forces in Modern Warfare and the European need of Innovation and Harmonisation

In recent years hybrid and cyber warfare have become the main focus in the defence sector. New technologies mean new threats, adapting defence capabilities to innovation is critical to maintain high-efficiency levels. During the NATO Madrid summit, which took place on 29th-30th, the issue of cybersecurity and disinformation was on the agenda, and necessary steps were included in the final declaration and in the new Strategic Concept. NATO announced a new defence and deterrence posture across the cyber domain to fight against new threats and challenges and stressed the necessity to increase resilience. However, the last events that occurred in our continent seem to be highlighting an unavoidable fact: conventional forces still play a fundamental role.

Comments Off on The Role of Conventional Forces in Modern Warfare and the European need of Innovation and Harmonisation