Ariane 6 is set to be the next flagship launch vehicle of the European Space Agency (ESA). On 30 November 2023, after years of delays and unfortunate circumstances, ESA Director General Josef Aschbacher finally announced that the rocket’s first flight will take place in the summer of 2024 (Foust, 2023d). [VI1] Ariane 6 is designed to carry into orbit payloads commissioned by private contractors, national governments, ESA member states and the European Union Space Programme (EUSPA). It aims to replace the recently retired Ariane 5 rocket, which was entrusted with the delivery of Europe’s heaviest and most advanced payloads during its 117-flights-long career from 1996 to 2023 (ESA, n.d. - a).
Space law is a complex system governing outer space activities which comprises international treaties, conventions, United Nations General Assembly resolutions, as well as rules and regulations of international organisations. This paper will lay the international legal framework of space law, examining key documents like the Outer Space Treaty (OST) of 1967. Beyond this legal framework, the paper explores the militarisation of outer space, scrutinizing the intersection between space law and the evolving military activities taking place in outer space.
Since gaining independence in 1956 from Britain and Egypt, Sudan has seen multiple revolutions and civil wars. Many violations of international law took place during these conflicts. It is worth examining the measures which the International Criminal Court (ICC) took to hold individuals accountable during the Bashir era of Sudan’s recent history. During this era, Sudan was the location of extreme violations of international law, including genocide and crimes against humanity (ICC).
Autonomous weapons systems incarnate one of the most debated evolution in warfare. War is based upon a simple negative definition of a lawful targets and the conduct of hostilities. Hence, only an authorised party can legally kill another according to the jus in bello. However, with the development of new technologies, legal questions arose around the use of lethal autonomous weapons systems in international or non-international conflicts.
Written by Christian Di Menna, Candela Fernández Gil-Delgado, Leandro Mendes Pereira and Aris VasilliouFrom the dawn of civilisation to today, war- fare has brought great destruction and terrible human suffering,…