Germany will not stop Poland from sending Leopard tanks to Ukraine if asked, official says

On the 22nd of February 2023, Germany’s Foreign Minister Anna Baerbock stated that Germany will not stop Poland from delivering Leopard 2 tanks to Ukraine (as cited in Radford, 2023). It is known that all states, whether in Europe or not, will help each other if one of them is in need (Art. 42, para. 7, TEU). These international subjects will cooperate in helping Ukraine with arms as well as economic and security assistance whenever it is in need (Art. 42, para. 7, TEU). Ukraine is a regional strategic partner that has undertaken significant efforts to modernize its military and increase its interoperability with NATO.  It remains an urgent security assistance priority to provide Ukraine with the equipment it needs to defend itself in Russia’s war against Ukraine (Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, 2023).

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Outsourcing the Cloud: Cross-border Public-Private partnership and European Interoperability for Cloud Infrastructures

In the past decade, the cyber domain, or cyberspace, has become the most challenging and pressing issue of recent times in the area of international security. In an ultra-connected world, where information travels at an uncontrollable rate and data is becoming the new resource to be mined; it ultimately affects every aspect of modern life. From the economy to civil liberties, it has become the new focus of national security strategies and legal frameworks.

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Radicalisation in the Armed Forces

The topic of radicalisation is strictly linked to terrorism since, usually, the former leads to the latter. However, they are not synonyms, and the processes behind each are very different and complex to analyse. The radicalisation topic dominated public opinion following the surge of terrorist attacks in Europe by ISIS militants starting in 2015. These events led national and local institutions to commission projects and programs to tackle radicalisation by raising awareness on the topic in civil society. This paper aims to investigate radicalisation in European militaries to create a European framework in which armed forces and civil society can join to fight radicalisation processes related to armies. To do so, this analysis will focus on radicalisation processes within the military and amongst individuals who have left the armed forces.

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Estonia Set to Boost its Defence with Twelve New Howitzers

Estonia took another step on January 14 to bolster its defence as the nation’s Ministry of Defence announced the signing of a new €36 million contract to procure twelve K9 Thunder Self-Propelled Howitzers (Ministry of Defence Estonia, 2023). The deal, signed with the company Hanwha Defence, is a result of what Defence Minister Hanno Peukur referred to as “lessons learned from the war in Ukraine” (as cited in Estonian World, 2023). The 47-ton, 155 mm howitzers manufactured in South Korea feature a maximum firing range of 40 kilometres and can reach a top speed of 67 kilometres per hour (European Defence Review, 2022).

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