With the live coverage of the war in Ukraine from media all around the world, it is easy to run into photos or videos of Russian tanks. In Ukraine, Russia’s main battle tank (MBT) is the T-72, but they also deployed some T-80s and some T-90s. By carefully looking at these units, it can be noticed that Russian, but also Ukrainian tanks are equipped with small blocks all around their armour. These blocks are an additional defensive armour, which serves the purpose to protect the tank and its crew from anti-tank weapons. This additional armour is called Explosive Reactive Armour (ERA).
Since 2009, the European Defence Agency (EDA) has promoted and supervised a series of initiatives to improve interoperability between the Member States in joint operations involving the employment of helicopters. The Helicopter Exercise Programme (HEP) has so far produced sixteen joint exercises, which have progressively gained wider participation, with eight countries (France, Spain, Italy, Belgium, Finland, Hungary, Czech Republic, and Portugal) providing their infrastructures for the operations.
On the 23rd and 24th of June, EU leaders gathered at the European Council to discuss, among others, newly formulated membership requests from Ukraine, Moldavia and Georgia. While still considered as third countries, states that fill up a membership request or obtain candidate status (as well as non-candidate third States) cannot - and should - not be entirely ousted or dismissed of hand from various EU legal frameworks and tools related to common security and defence policy (CSDP).
In the defence industries, as elsewhere, the art of strategy requires a good understanding of possible futures on which to base current choices. Change, instability and uncertainty are the lot of any decision-maker today and will be even more so tomorrow. Digital technology is more important than ever for defence, giving leaders the effective and efficient force to make informed decisions from a common, accurate and timely picture of the operational situation and occupy a strategic position on the battlefield.
New technologies are transforming the security and defence sectors at a faster pace than ever before. Digital technologies, in particular, are affecting established balances of power within the global security landscape. Therefore, it is essential to ensure that Europe’s security and defence sectors remain at the cutting edge of technological development.