With the advent of the so-called “space race” era during the Cold War, states started giving major consideration to developing their space capabilities, having realised the many advantages they could bring. Indeed, military operations in space primarily concern satellite-based surveillance, communications, and intelligence operations, thus allowing states to benefit from them as space-related development can, among many things, extend the range and capabilities of communications, improve missile early warning and enhance situational awareness beyond any terrestrial capability.
Amid a paradigm shift in EU economic governance, a draft compromise seen by Euractiv reveals that, under the new Economic Governance Review (EGR), defence spending might be granted special status within European Union (EU) fiscal rules (Pugnet &Allenbach-Ammann, 2023). According to Euractiv, this document, tabled by the Spanish presidency of the EU Council on 3 November 2023, seeks to stimulate member state investment in defence. It is also part of a grand effort to overhaul current EU debt and deficit reduction rules, which were suspended for four years in order to allow increased spending and will be returning in full force in 2024 (Leali & Smith-Meyer, 2023).
The eruption of yet another armed conflict between Israel and Palestine is wreaking havoc within a geopolitical region which has recently been under a process of progressive stabilisation and pacification. The Abraham Accords have been a critical component of this process and its diplomatic formalisation. However, Hamas’ terrorist attacks on 7 October 2023 and the subsequent Israeli retaliation are hampering this entire pacification process. If tensions continue to escalate, they will conceivably deter the continuation and extension of these ambitious accords. The Abraham Accords were brokered in 2020 between Israel, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Bahrain as a result of the diplomatic mediation of the Trump administration.
From 13 to 17 September 2023, Kim Jong-un embarked on his first visit to a foreign leader in over four years as he travelled to the Russian Far East to meet Vladimir Putin. This meeting symbolised a convergence of interests in opposing the U.S.-led Western order from which both countries find themselves increasingly isolated. Hence, although the summit did not produce an explicit statement of what was discussed or agreed on at the surface level, the meeting sparked fears of a potential arms deal between the two countries, which could well contribute to revitalising Putin’s war machine in Ukraine (Ye Hee Lee & Bolton, 2023).
A recent article by Politico shed light on how defence lobbyists are increasingly concentrating their efforts on EU officials and policy-makers (Wheaton & Bayer, 2023). While lobbying activities have traditionally interested Member States, defence and security integration at the European level has progressively drawn the attention of both European and American defence companies (Wheaton & Bayer, 2023).