The involvement of women in the army con- stitutes a thorny issue in several countries where women are found in the margin com- pared to male combatants and there are sever- al nuances to the topic which will endeavour to highlight. In the same context, this paper will attempt to delineate the current situa- tion as well as explore the current initiatives taken in order to ameliorate the issues. Fur- thermore, it is essential to underline any gaps which account for an obstacle in the develop- ment of this situations. Firstly, we will reflect on the current state of art whilst we will introduce a theoretical framework to contextualise how the literature approaches the bipartition “women combatants or women civilians”. In order to have a more complete image of the situation, it is essential to utilize and compare statistical data. These data not only reflect the current circumstances but also identify what has already been done while underlying any existing gaps. The data used here can be found in the 2019 NATO The Annual Summary of the National Reports where all NATO mem- ber states submitted their national data. Fur- thermore, such National Reports are of signif- icant importance due to their comprehensive analysis of the situation for both women and men in the armed forces. Lastly, we will discuss the gaps as well as the opportunities aiming to integrate women thoroughly in the army.
This paper will shed light on the historical evolution of the conceptualization of a European Army, and will then analyse institutions and policies in place, as well as ways in which NATO and the EU can cooperate in the defence sector. Finally, the obstacles to the creation of a European Army are assessed against the backdrop of the current Russian war with Ukraine and the recent adoption of the EU Strategic Compass.
Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, also known as MANETs, are self-configuring networks of wireless devices whose applicability ranges from civilian and commercial uses to highly tactical military strategies. The variety of MANETs characteristics and typologies, together with their significant usage adaptability, make these technologies particularly advantageous when deployed in critical contexts.
The amount of digital information is growing daily and is becoming increasingly vulnerable and difficult to manage. Consequently, new security challenges are arising and with the new types of crimes, which States are not always prepared to tackle. New technologies have also created new tools that facilitate attacks and allow criminals to rapidly adapt to change. Such crimes and criminals are to be considered cyber dependent since they would not exist in the absence of data and internet networks.
Hybrid warfare can involve attempts to influence the adversary’s society through legal means such as purchasing news agencies and strategic infrastructure, as well as through illegal spreading of mistrust such as undermining free and fair elections.