Artificial Intelligence (AI) is reshaping and revolutionising several sectors of civil society by improving efficiency and reducing costs, with the military and defence fields also joining in this AI revolution (Richemond-Barak, 2022). AI can be defined as a system that solves complex tasks through adopting human approaches, including learning, creating, cognitive thinking, adapting and communicating (Nadikattu, 2020). Much of the discussion about AI is focused on its negative aspects, ignoring the positive implications that it can have for military affairs and decision-making processes, especially in order to protect civilians and reduce casualties, as well as in organizing counter-terrorism operations (Richemond-Barak, 2022).
Following the wave of terrorist attacks that shook Europe in 2015, policymakers in the EU realised the necessity to outline a comprehensive strategy to trace the path to fight against political extremism. Whether fuelled by ethnonationalism, religious, or ideological reasons, everyone wants to avoid the hundreds of deaths that plagued that year, and the following ones.
The 21st century has seen the rise of “new wars” in which violent non-state actors (VNSAs) employ tactical means of asymmetric warfare and facilitate digital technologies for their purposes. To secure their population and stabilise the liberal international order, nation-states must deepen their cooperation and increase interoperability in strategy, operational approach, and information-sharing.