Written by Octavio Bellomo
Edited by Tomas Farinha Carney
The ongoing conflict in Ukraine has brought with it new concerns regarding the possible use of nuclear weapons. Considering NATO’s notable conventional superiority, the Russian Federation has relied on its nuclear armed forces for deterrence and power projection. As a consequence, Russia has actively maintained a greater number of tactical nuclear weapons. Yet despite this threat, NATO still has several options to bolster deterrence over Ukraine. Deterrence by punishment might see the US adopt a counterforce continuum targeting strategy. While, deterrence by denial primarily encompasses contributing arms to Ukraine, particularly surface-to-air missile systems. Finally, diplomacy, both official and unofficial, is key in allaying fears of nuclear escalation.