Ammunition Aid: Kosovo’s Contribution to Ukraine’s Defence

The announcement made by Ejup Maqedonci, Kosovo's Minister of Defence, during the 20th Meeting of the Ukraine Defense Contact Group on 19 March 2024 is a significant development in the ongoing conflict between Ukraine and Russia. Kosovo's pledge to provide military aid to Ukraine underscores the country’s political alignment with both the European Union (EU) and the United States (US) and its willingness to join collective efforts in support of Ukraine's defence. Kosovo has committed to supply two military aid packages, which includes essential resources such as trucks, tactical vehicles, armoured personnel carriers, and mortar artillery shells. This is the first time the country has provided military assistance to Ukraine. Amidst Ukraine's acute shortage of ammunition, a confluence of factors including the political deadlock in the US Congress and production constraints in Europe have accentuated the severity of this situation. This prompts a closer examination whether Kosovo's military aid package, though undoubtedly valuable, sufficiently grapples the enormity of Ukraine’s ammunition crisis.

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Ground Robotics in Modern Combat

The automation of military vehicles and systems has long been a feature of warfare, but the emergence and development of ground robotics are revolutionising modern combat. Since their deployment in conflicts such as in Afghanistan and Iraq, ground robots have evolved into increasingly capable and autonomous entities integrated into military operations (Rosenberg, 2024). Fuelled by recent conflicts such as the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and the Russia-Ukraine War, which have highlighted the significant impact of military robotics on the battlefield, interest in the further development of this field continues. The development of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) has proceeded slowly, with ongoing challenges and questions surrounding their integration into military operations and ground forces (Gosselin-Malo, 2023). This paper aims to outline the advancements in ground robotics, explore the rationale for their increased proliferation in warfare, outline potential challenges in their widespread integration, and briefly analyse the deployment of such ordnance in the ongoing Russia-Ukraine War.

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Revolutionising the Battlefield: How Unmanned Ground Vehicles are Replacing Humans in Armed Conflict

Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) are becoming increasingly common in security and combat operations. The introduction of Ukraine’s Lyut tank is a clear example of how automation is revolutionising armed combat. UGVs are currently capable of operating in a semi-autonomous manner but not in the use of lethal force. This paper will analyse the ways in which fully autonomous UGVS are being developed and introduced on the battlefield as well as the role that they may play in the future of security operations. As artificial intelligence (AI) is becoming omnipresent, it is necessary to understand the debate surrounding these systems in armed conflict.

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Smaller EU Member States and How They Navigate International Security Frameworks – the Case of Portugal and Estonia

This paper delves deeper into the often-overlooked role of smaller member states within international and regional security and defence frameworks by exploring their experiences and strategic choices within the EU and NATO security and defence frameworks. It is essential to understand how smaller member states’ interests often differ significantly from those of larger members. Despite their constrained power and relatively modest economic and military resources in comparison to larger neighbours, small states hold certain advantages that enhance their capacity to influence global affairs. While they may lack the military and economic might as larger nations, their persistence, determination, and steadfastness can yield significant outcomes. Effective policymaking can elevate a small state into an influential player on the international stage.

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Internet of Military Things (IoMT): Cybersecurity challenges and non-interoperability

The Internet of Military Things (IoMT) presents widespread opportunities, including enhanced efficiency, real-time decision-making, and improved situational awareness. The IoMT is “driven by military informationization requirement and information technology development. It consists of an information system capturing the physical attributes and state information of military people, equipments and materials by various information sensing means, connecting all kind of operation elements and environment elements as an organic whole by standard communication protocols to process, control and apply intelligently” (Yushi et al., 2018: 632).

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