In the West but Unlike the Rest: The Bulgarian Defence’s Difficult Path Toward Interoperability

As part of NATO's Eastern flank, Bulgaria’s defence capabilities are crucial to European security. While Sofia has embarked on crucial reforms since the fall of the Communist bloc in 1991, its Armed Forces are still far from being at the same level as its NATO allies. Nevertheless, Bulgaria is boldly enhancing its military power. Initiatives such as its accession to FINABEL show the political commitment to share defence and interoperability.

0 Comments

Legal Implications of a Ukrainian Defeat on European Defence

This paper examines the potential strategic and legal consequences for the European Union’s defence cooperation following a hypothetical defeat of Ukraine. With the EU deeply involved in supporting Ukraine against Russian aggression, the implications of a possible defeat go beyond immediate military losses and encompasses broader ramifications for the EU and NATO, especially in their military defence, cooperation, and credibility. This paper focuses on how defeat could affect European military strategy, its legal position on defence commitments and the Union’s overall political cohesion.

0 Comments

Nordic joint action: Sweden and Denmark enhance defence cooperation

Pal Jonson, Swedish Defence Minister, and Troels Lund Poulsen, Danish Defence Minister, signed a letter of intent on enhanced defence cooperation on 7 May 2024. The letter of intent is framed in “light of the concerning security situation in Europe and beyond and the need to continue building upon the bilateral Memorandum of Understanding” (Government of Sweden, 2024) the two countries signed in 2016 that guides their cooperation in defence matters. This agreement aligns with broader cooperation frameworks, including the Nordic Defence Cooperation (NORDEFCO), and the countries’ willingness to increase collaborative defence efforts.

0 Comments

Italian Prime Minister Giorgia Meloni and NATO Chief Jens Stoltenberg meet in Rome to Discuss Ukraine, Defence Spending and Mediterranean Security

On 8 May 2024, NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg met with Italian Prime Minister Giorgia Meloni in Rome, Italy. Their discussion mainly focused on what will be at the heart of the upcoming NATO Summit, taking place in July in Washington, with the war in Ukraine leading the conversation (ANSA, 2024a). The Secretary General reiterated that sending boots on the ground to Ukraine is currently not an option for NATO, nor something that the Ukrainians have asked (ANSA 2024b). Instead, what Ukrainians are in desperate need of is additional military aid, especially in light of the recent territorial advance by the Russian army in the northeastern region of Kharkiv (Dettmer, 2024).

0 Comments

Jus ad bellum: Protecting Sovereignty and Diplomatic Immunity in the Israel-Iran conflict

In the complex landscape of international relations, the right to self-defence is fundamental in shaping state action when faced with aggression. This right is set within the framework of international law through the United Nations (UN) Charter in article 51 (UN Charter, 1945), which delineates the limits to how states can respond to threats to their sovereignty and security. Recent events, such as the Iran-Israeli conflict, have reopened discussions on the application and interpretation of the right of self-defence. As tensions escalate and geopolitical dynamics evolve, it is essential to take a closer look at the legal foundation of states’ notion of self-defence and its relevance in contemporary conflicts. This article examines the nature of self-defence in international law and explores its core elements through an analysis of the recent retaliatory spiral that started with Israel’s strike on Iran’s embassy in Syria.

0 Comments