In 1832, the Prussian General and military theorist Carl von Clausewitz was writing: “War is to use the right amount of force at the right time and at the right place”. How could we read this sentence nowadays? Would it still be relevant in the 21st century?
The method of fighting a war has changed over time. Especially, the rapid development of biological science, particularly biotechnology and synthetic biology, as well as the fast accessibility to networks, resources, and expertise in these last 25 years led to an increase in the proliferation and the use of more deadly weapons for massive civil disruption by both a number of states and nonstates actors.